Gertrude Sebunya Muwanga


This is an empirical investigation of the homogeneity of gender disaggregated labor using the Douglas, single/multi-factor translog production functions; and labor productivity functions for the USA.   The results based on the single factor translog model, indicated that: an increase in the capita/female labor ratio increases aggregate output; male labor is more productive than female labor, which is more productive than capital; a simultaneous increase in quantity allocated and productivity of the leads to an increase in output; female labor productivity has grown slower than male labor productivity; it much easier to substitute male labor for capital compared to female labor; and the three inputs are neither perfect substitutes nor perfect complements. As a consequence, male and female labor are not homogenous inputs. Efforts to investigate the factors influencing gender disaggregated labor productivity; and designing policies to achieve gender parity in numbers/productivity in the labor force and increasing the ease of substitutability between male labor and female labor are required.

Full Text:




Allen, C. and Hall G. F. (eds). (1997). Macroeconomic Modeling in a Changing World. New York: John Willey & Sons.

Bergstrom, T. (2015). Lecture Notes on Elasticity of Substitution, p. 5. (2015). Available at: (Accessed on 17 June 2017)

Boisvert, R. N. (1982) Translog Production Function: Its Properties, Its Several Interpretations and Estimation Problems, Ithaca, NY: Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Bradshaw, S, Castellino J. and Diop B. (2013). Women’s Role in Economic Development: Overcoming the Constraints. Background Paper for the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, UN, Sustainable Development Solutions Network, A Global Initiative for the United Nations.

Chongela, J., Nandala . and Korabandi S. (2013). Estimation of Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) Production Function with Capital and Labour Inputs of Agri-food Firms in Tanzania. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Department of Agricultural Economics, 8(41), pp. 5082–5089.

Christensen, L. R., Jorgenson D.W., LAU L.J. (1971). Conjugate Duality and Transdental Logarithmic Production Function. Econometrica, 39(4), pp. 225-256.

Christensen, L. R., Jorgenson D.W., and Lau L.J. (1973). Transdental Logarithmic Production Frontier. Review of Economics and Statistics, 55, pp. 28-45.

Collard-W. (2012). Production and Cost Functions. Available at: (Accessed on Feb 13, 2017)

Feenstra, R. C., Inklaar R. and Timmer M. P. The Next Generation of the Penn World Table. American Economic Review, 2015, 105, No.10, pp. 3150-3182.

Grilichs, Z. and Ringstad V. (1971). Economies of Scale and the Form of the Production Function. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.

Green, W. H. (2012). Econometric Analysis. 7th Edition. New York: Pearson, 2012

Helali, K. and Kalai M. (2015). Estimate of the Elasticities of Substitution of the CES

and translog production functions in Tunisia. Int. J. Economics and Business Research, 9(3), pp. 245-253.

Hicks, J. (1932)The Theory of Wages. London: Macmillan.

Juselius, M. (2008). Long Run Relationships between Labour and Capital: Indirect Evidence on the Elasticity of Substitution. Journal of Macroeconomics, 30(2), pp. 739–756.

Khalil, A. M. (2005). A cross Section Estimation of Translog Production Function: Jordanian Manufacturing Industry, Al-Ahliyya Amman University. Available at: (Accessed on February 20, 2017)

Klacek J., Vosvrda M., and Schlosser S. (2007). KLE Production Function and Total Factor Productivity. Statistika. No. 4.

Kmenta, J. (1987). On Estimation of CES Production Function. International Economic Review. Available at: (Accessed on February 24, 2017)

Krishnapillai, S., Thompson H. (2012). Cross Section Translog Production and Elasticity of Substitution in U.S. Manufacturing Industry. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 2(2), pp. 50-54.

Lau, L. J. (1986), Functional Forms in Econometric Model Building. In Z. Griliches, Intrigiligator M.P. (eds). Handbook of Econometrics, 3pp. 1516-1566. North –Holland: Amsterdam, 1986.

Mas-colell, A., Whinston M. D., Green J. R. (2007). Microeconomic Theory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195073401.

Napasintuwong, O., and Emerson R. D. (2015). Labor Substitutability in Labor Intensive Agriculture and Technological Change in the Presence of Foreign Labor. Available at: (Accessed on June 06, 2017)

Njeru, J. (2010). Factors Influencing Technical Efficiencies among Selected Wheat Farmers in Uasin Gishu District Kenya. African Economic Consortium, Research Paper 206.

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Data- Labor Force Statistics (LSF) by sex and age - OECD.Stat. Available at:

Parlinska, M., Dareev G. (2011). Applications of Production Functions in Agriculture. Quantitative Methods in Economics, 12(1), pp. 119-123.

Pavelescu F. M. (2005). Impact of Collinearity on the Estimated Parameters and Classical Statistical Tests Values of Multifactorial Linear Regressions in Conditions of O.L.S. In Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, No. 2.

Pavelescu F. M. (2009). A Review of Student Test Properties in Condition of Multifactorial Linear Regression. Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, No. 1.

Pavelescu F. M. (2010a) An Analysis Model for the Disturbances Generated by Collinearity in the context of the OLS Method. Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting, No. 2.

Pavelescu F. M. (2010b) An Extensive Study on the Disturbances Generated by Collinearity in a linear Regression Model with Three Explanatory Variables. Romanian Journal of Economics, 2(40), pp. 65-93.

Pavelescu F. M. (2011). Some Aspects of the Translog Production Function Estimation. Available at: (Accessed on February 24, 2017)

Stern, D. I. (2011) Elasticities of Substitution and Complementarity” Journal of Productivity Analysis, 36 (1), pp. 79-89.

WDI, (World Development Indicators) Data (2017) Available at: catalog/world-development-indicators (Accessed on February 13, 2017)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

All the articles published in JSEG are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.